Cynefin Framework

The Cynefin Framework is a model designed to help organizations navigate challenges and make informed decisions. It categorizes challenges into five distinct contexts: simple, complicated, complex, chaotic, and disorder.

First introduced by David Snowden in 2007, the Cynefin Framework has become a valuable tool for understanding and addressing various types of problems. His widely acclaimed article in the Harvard Business Review brought significant attention to this model.

„Cynefin“ is a Welsh word that has no direct English translation. Literally, it means „habitat“ or „place“—the place where one feels at home. In a business context, it can be seen as the alignment between the type of challenge and the context in which it is best addressed. The framework assists organizations in determining the appropriate approach for each type of problem, allowing them to adapt more effectively to various situations.

The Five Contexts of the Cynefin Framework


In the simple context, the relationship between cause and effect is clear and straightforward. Therefore, simple challenges have simple solutions. An example of a simple context is the game Tic-Tac-Toe, where the facts are known, and if you understand the game, you know exactly what the next move should be. These contexts are characterized by stability and clear, predictable cause-and-effect relationships. The approach here is to sense, categorize, and respond using best practices documented in manuals or guidelines.


For decades, most business challenges have been complicated. A complicated challenge is like a chess game: if you are an expert, you don’t know your opponent’s next move, but you know the possible moves and how to counter them. There are multiple possible solutions and causes. Experts are needed to analyze the situation and recommend the best course of action. Traditional hierarchical structures and classic project management have excelled in this context. The approach is to sense, analyze, and respond based on the expertise.


In a rapidly changing and complex world, we face challenges characterized by complexity. Complex situations are like a high-level soccer game, where you can’t predict the exact positions of the ball or players in the next minute. Many interdependent actors create numerous possible outcomes. There is no single correct answer, and cause and effect are not obvious. Complex challenges require a creative approach that is sensitive to changes. Work in short iterations, obtain feedback by observing results, and adapt accordingly. Waterfall models based on predictability will fail here. The solution resembles a flock of starlings evading a predator—exploring the situation, getting feedback, and continuously adjusting.


The chaotic context is the realm of the unknown. Perfect answers are not the priority here; swift, innovative action within existing possibilities is required. Analysis can occur later. This approach demands strong leadership. Typical examples of chaotic contexts include acute crises, such as natural disasters.


At the center of the Cynefin Framework is the context of disorder. Here, it is unclear which of the other four contexts dominates. In this situation, it is advisable to break down the problem into smaller parts and apply the appropriate approach to each part. Most business strategies, product developments, and project management challenges oscillate between the complicated and complex contexts. Should we use traditional project management methods and strategic planning, or do we need entrepreneurial agility? The Cynefin Framework provides guidance and helps organizations identify the right approach for each situation. For more precise problem classification and decision-making support, the Stacey Matrix can be used, adding further dimensions to analyze uncertainty and control.

The Cynefin Framework supports organizations in making informed decisions, adapting their strategies, and effectively managing various types of challenges.

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